Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2014, Page: 18-32
Analysis of Causes of Disease in Sundarbans Natural Mangrove
Awal, Mohd. Abdul, Environmental Scientist, (Ministry of Environment & Forest), Founder & Chief Advisor, (Health & Pollutions Research Farm), and Address: Long Island City, New York, USA
Received: Jul. 3, 2014;       Accepted: Jul. 17, 2014;       Published: Jul. 30, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.bio.20140202.11      View  2991      Downloads  108
Abstract
A serious disease (top dying) of H. fomes in Sundarbans is affecting millions of the trees. An inventory by Chaffey et al., (1985) revealed that there were about 45.2 million top dying trees in the Sundarbans of which 20 million had more than 50% of their crown affected by top dying. The loss of H. fomes will have a major impact on the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem, as well as lead to economic losses. Despite various hypotheses as to the causes of this top-dying, the underlying causes are still not well understood. The present work has explored some of the possible factors involved, focussing particularly on the relationship between the amount of top-dying in different places and the concentrations of a number of chemical elements present in the soil and water, in order to test the hypothesis that chemical pollution might be responsible. Other factors such as the pH, salinity and nutrient status were also assessed. Nine plots were selected for sampling of soil, water, and vegetation in order to categorise different areas in terms of their intensity of top-dying. 63 soil samples and 9 water samples were tested, mainly by ICPMS, to investigate certain parameters of the soil and water, such as Sn, Exchangeable K, Soil pH, Pb, Zn, Ni, soil pH, CEC, soil nutrients, soil moisture content, and elemental concentrations of 32 other elements. Most of the elements studied had no significant correlation with the top dying of Heritiera fomes. However, Sn, Exchangeable K, and soil pH were significantly related, and three elements, namely Pb, Zn, Sr, were also close to significance. Of the hypotheses previously put forward to explain top-dying, the present results do not support enhanced salinity as the cause. It is likely that several of the above-mentioned environmental factors interact with each other to induce top dying in Sundri. But, the present results have showed that Sn, Exchangeable K, Pb , Sr and Zn could be directly linked with top-dying of Heritiera fomes (Sundri) in Sundarbans ( Awal, 2007; 2009; 2014), particularly by weakening the vigour of the trees and allowing other factors such as pathological agents to attack the plants.
Keywords
Heritiera Fomes, Mangrove, Sundarbans, Disease of Plants, Natural Forest Resources, Sundarbans, Top-Dying, Causal Factors, Heavy Metal Concentrations
To cite this article
Awal, Mohd. Abdul, Analysis of Causes of Disease in Sundarbans Natural Mangrove, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014, pp. 18-32. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20140202.11
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